veículo de difusão de informações em análise de marcha, reabilitação e biomecânica, captura de movimento para produções industriais
clinical gait analysis, rehabilitation and biomechanics, industrial "motion capture" (MoCap)

Papers: História

    3-D Analysis of Human Movement

  • Human Movement Science - Guest editorial
  • Michael W. Whittle, Jean-Pierre Blanchi
    The International Society of Biomechanics Technical Group on the Three-Dimensional Analysis of Human Movement held its inaugural meeting in the delightful city of Grenoble, in the French Alps, in July 1996. The papers in this special issue are based on presentations made at that meeting and at the associated Summer School.


  • A gait analysis data collection and reduction technique
  • Roy B. Davis, III, Sylvia Õunpuu, Dennis Tyburski and James R. Gage
    The clinical objective of the gait analysis laboratory, developed by United Technologies Corporation (Hartford, CT, USA) in 1980, at the Newington Children's Hospital is to provide quantified assessments of human locomotion which assist in the orthopaedic management of various pediatric gait pathologies. The motion measurement system utilizes a video-based data collection strategy similar to commercially available systems for motion data collection. Anatomically aligned, passive, retroreflective markers placed on the subject are illuminated, detected, and stored in dedicated camera hardware while data are acquired from force platforms and EMG transducers. Three-dimensional marker position information is used to determine: (i) the orientation of segmentally-embedded coordinate systems, (ii) instantaneous joint center locations, and (iii) joint angles. Joint kinetics, i.e., moments and powers, may also be computed if valid force plate data are collected.
  • A proposed test to support the clinical movement analysis laboratory accreditation process
  • John P. Holden, W. Scott Selbie, Steven J. Stanhope - Accepted 24 June 2002
  • Alterations in Surgical Decision Making in Patients with CP
  • Alterations in Surgical Decision Making in Patients with Cerebral Palsy Based on Three-Dimensional Gait Analysis
    DeLuca, Peter A. M.D.; Davis, Roy B. III Ph.D.; Ounpuu, Sylvia M.Sc.; Rose, Sally P.T.; Sirkin, Robert M.D.
    The purpose of this study was to compare surgical recommendations made by clinicians experienced in gait analysis when using information provided from the clinical examination and videotape, with recommendations made after the addition of kinematic, kinetic, and electromyographic (EMG) data.
    September/October 1997


  • Common gait abnormalities of the knee in cerebral palsy
  • David H. Sutherland, M.D., and Jon R. Davids, M.D.
    Received and accepted: January 9, 1992
  • Comparison of the performance of 3D camera systems II
  • Yoshihiro Ehara, Hiroshi Fujimoto, Shinji Miyazaki, Masaaki Mochimaru, Shigeru Tanaka, Sumiko Yamamoto
    Accepted 15 April 1996


  • Gait Analysis - An Essential Tool in the Treatment of Cerebral Palsy
  • James R. Gage
  • Gait Analysis Alters Decision-Making in Cerebral Palsy
  • Robert E. Cook, F.R.C.S.Orth., Ingo Schneider, M.D., M. Elizabeth Hazlewood, M.C.S.P., Susan J. Hillman, M.Sc., and James E. Robb, F.R.C.S.Ed.
  • Gait analysis methods in rehabilitation
  • Richard Baker
    Introduction: Brand's four reasons for clinical tests and his analysis of the characteristics of valid biomechanical tests for use in orthopaedics are taken as a basis for determining what methodologies are required for gait analysis in a clinical rehabilitation context.
    Published: 02 March 2006
  • Gait Analysis Results
  • Gillette Children’s Specialty Healthcare
    Pre-operative gait analysis results in significant gains for 79 percent of patients with cerebral palsy
    August 7, 2003


  • Measurement of Lower Extremity Kinematics During Level Walking
  • M. P. Kadaba, H. K. Ramakrishnan, and M. E. Wootten
    A simple external marker system and algorithms for computing lower extremity joint angle motion during level walking were developed and implemented on a computer-aided video motion analysis system (VICON). The concept of embedded axes and Euler rotation angles was used to define the three-dimensional joint angle motion based on a set of body surface markers. Gait analysis was peformed on 40 normal young adults three times on three different test days at least 1 week apart using the marker system. Angular motion of the hip, knee, and ankle joints and of the pelvis were obtained throughout a gait cycle utilizing the three-dimensional trajectories of markers. The effect of uncertainties in defining the embedded axis on joint angles was demonstrated using sensitivity analysis.
  • Natural Progression of Gait in Children With Cerebral Palsy
  • Katharine J. Bell, M.S., Sylvia Õunpuu, M.Sc., Peter A. DeLuca, M.D., and Mark J. Romness, M.D.


  • Position and orientation in space of bones during movement (I)
  • Cappozzo A, Catani F, Croce UD, Leardini A.
    Position and orientation in space of bones during movement: anatomical frame definition and determination
    This paper deals with methodological problems related to the reconstruction of the,position and orientation of the human pelvis and the lower limb bones in space during the execution of locomotion and physical exercises using a stereophotogrammetric system. The intention is to produce a means of quantitative description of joint kinematics and dynamics for both research and application.
  • Position and orientation in space of bones during movement (II)
  • Cappozzo A, Catani F, Leardini A, Benedetti MG, Croce UD
    Position and orientation in space of bones during movement: experimental artefacts
    This paper deals with the experimental problems related to the reconstruction of the position and orientation of the lower limb bones in space during the execution of locomotion and physical exercises. The inaccuracies associated with the relative movement between markers and underlying bone are analysed.
  • Reflections on Clinical Gait Analysis
  • Roy B. Davis


  • The development of mature gait
  • DH Sutherland, R Olshen, L Cooper and SL Woo
    "To determine the normal gait patterns in childhood, gait studies were performed on 186 normal children between the ages of one and seven years. Rotations of the lower-extremity joints in the sagittal, frontal, and transverse planes; step length; cadence; walking velocity; and duration of single-limb stance (as percentage of the gait cycle) were analyzed throughout a walking cycle using high-speed movies, a Graf-Pen sonic digitizer, a computer, and a plotter as well as electromyograms."
  • The effect of gait speed on lateral balance control during walking
  • The effect of gait speed on lateral balance control during walking in healthy elderly
    Jorunn L. Helbostad, Rolf Moe-Nilssen
    Accepted 20 November 2002

  • The evolution of clinical gait analysis part l: Kinesiological EMG
  • David H. Sutherland
    "In 1996, I was asked by Roy Davis, President of the Gait and Clinical Movement Analysis Society, to be the presidential guest speaker at the Birmingham, AL, annual society meeting and present a talk on the development of clinical gait analysis. Following my presentation, James Gage, Editor-in-Chief for Gait and Posture, and David Winter, Associate Editor for review articles requested a manuscript for publication. To address this task I have the advantage of being a participant throughout this exciting era and of personally knowing most of the people mentioned in this manuscript. To prepare for this assignment, I wrote letters and/or made phone calls to them. Their replies to my inquiries, plus their publications, provide documentation for this review paper. The opinions expressed, for better or worse, are my own. Due to space limitations, only a partial list of the many that have contributed is presented and I regret that not all of the important contributors have been included. In some instances they will be found in Part II and Part III. Hopefully, later publications on this subject will correct the omissions."
    Accepted 26 January 2001
  • The evolution of clinical gait analysis part II: Kinematics
  • David H. Sutherland
    Accepted 18 December 2001
  • The evolution of clinical gait analysis part III: Kinetics and energy assessment
  • David H. Sutherland

  • The history of gait analysis before the advent of modern computers
  • Richard Baker
    Accepted 27 October 2006
  • The Impact of Instrumented Gait Analysis on Surgical Planning
  • The Impact of Instrumented Gait Analysis on Surgical Planning: Treatment of Spastic Equinovarus Deformity of the Foot and Ankle
    David A. Fuller, MD, Mary Ann E. Keenan, MD, Albert Esquenazi, MD, John Whyte, MD, PhD, Nathaniel H. Mayer, MD, Rebecca Fidler-Sheppard
    April 24, 2001


  • Using surface electrodes for the evaluation of the RF, VM and VL muscles in children with CP
  • Using surface electrodes for the evaluation of the rectus femoris, vastus medialis and vastus lateralis muscles in children with cerebral palsy
    S. Õunpuu, P.A. DeLuca, K.J. Bell, R.B. Davis
    June 1997


  • Gait in the Elderly
  • François Prince, Hélène Corriveau, Réjean Hébert, David A. Winter
  • The development of mature gait
  • David H. Sutherland - 1997
    We must understand the natural history of immature walking in order to define and interpret pathological gait in young children. Step length, cadence and walking velocity show evidence of both central nervous system maturation and growth until approximately 4 years of age. Until 4 years-of-age the step factor (step length divided by leg length) increases, but thereafter the step factor remains constant and adult-like. After 4 years-of-age the changes in velocity, cadence, step length in normal children are appropriately attributed to changes in limb length. Dynamic joint angle measurements indicate stabilization of gait by 3 to 4 years-of-age.
  • Efficacy of clinical gait analysis
  • The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate and summarize the current evidence base related to the clinical efficacy of gait analysis. A literature review was conducted to identify references related to human gait analysis published between January 2000 and September 2009 plus relevant older references.
    Tishya A.L. Wren, George E. Gorton III, Sylvia Õunpuu, Carole A. Tucker