Análise de Marcha - Gait Analysis:
- Assessment of the kinematic variability among 12 motion analysis laboratories Variability of kinematic measurements among sites participating in a collaborative research investigation is a primary factor in determining number of subjects, level of detectable difference and statistical power of a multi-site research study. In this study, one subject was evaluated by 24 examiners at 12 motion analysis laboratories and the observed variability of nine kinematic parameters are reported.
- Can biomechanical variables predict improvement in crouch gait In this study, we developed a multivariable regression model to determine if biomechanical variables and other subject characteristics measured during a physical exam and gait analysis can predict which subjects with crouch gait will demonstrate improved knee kinematics on a follow-up gait analysis.
- Development of temporal and distance parameters of gait in normal children Temporal and distance parameters of 33 normal children were obtained from instrumented gait analysis prospectively over ﬁve consecutive years. The parameters were normalised to minimise the confounding effects of increasing height and leg length.
- Detection of gait events and intervals Assessment and validation of a simple automated method for the detection of gait events and intervals
- Fixating the pelvis in the horizontal plane affects gait characteristics In assistive devices for neuro-rehabilitation, natural human motions are partly restricted by the device. This may affect the normality of walking during training. This research determines effects on gait of fixating the pelvis translations in the horizontal plane during treadmill walking. Direct effects on the motion of the pelvis and external forces acting on the pelvis were measured. Several gait descriptors (step parameters, trunk angles and a ground reaction force parameter) were defined and measured to indicate changes.
- Human movement analysis using stereophotogrammetry Human movement analysis using stereophotogrammetry Part 4: assessment of anatomical landmark misplacement and its effects on joint kinematics
- Measurement and management of errors in quantitative gait data Gait analysis is a valuable tool in the evaluation of children and adults with movement disorders. The data produced from gait analysis, however, is not necessarily free of errors. The purpose of this study was two-fold: (i) to estimate the errors associated with quantitative gait data; and (ii) to propose a method for incorporating the knowledge of these errors into the clinical interpretation process.
- The reliability of three-dimensional kinematic gait measurements: A systematic review Three-dimensional kinematic measures of gait are routinely used in clinical gait analysis and provide a key outcome measure for gait research and clinical practice. This systematic review identiﬁes and evaluates current evidence for the inter-session and inter-assessor reliability of threedimensional kinematic gait analysis (3DGA) data.
A simple and rapid automatic method for detection of gait events at the foot could speed up and possibly increase the repeatability of gait analysis and evaluations of treatments fo rpathological gaits. The aim of this study was to compare and validate a kinematic-based algorithm used in the detection of four gait events, heel contact, heel rise, toe contact and toe off.
Kinematically Constrained Joint Parameters (KC Method):
- A kinematically constrained method for determining subject specific joint parameters
- Kinematically Constrained Joint Parameters I: Method, Repeatability and Objectivity
- Kinematically Constrained Joint Parameters part II: Accuracy and Kinematics Results
- Performance of the kinematically constrained method for joint parameter estimation
- A new method for estimating joint parameters from motion data This article describes a new method for joint parameter estimation. The new method can be summarized as follows: (i) the motions of two adjacent segments spanning a single joint are tracked, (ii) the axis of rotation between every pair of observed segment configurations is computed, (iii) the most likely intersection of all axes (effective joint center) and most likely orientation of the axes (effective joint axis) is found. Initial validation of the method was conducted on a hinged mechanical analog and a single healthy adult subject.
- A new approach to determining the hip rotation profile from clinical gait analysis data Conventional models for determining joint rotation angles from marker positions as part of three-dimensional clinical gait analysis are susceptible to errors arising from mis-placement of the thigh markers. An analysis of idealised data reveals how the measured variables are affected by different angular offsets of the thigh marker from its true position. An artefact on the varus-valgus signal arising from the projection true knee flexion onto a mal-aligned thigh segment axes is the most characteristic feature of this problem. If this is observed then the hip rotation profiles are also erroneous.
A technique is proposed to determine a correction factor which can be applied to gait data to correct for this mal-alignment. Its use is demonstrated on a single case study and a subjective assessment of its use on a cohort of 40 patients is reported. A detailed discussion of the assumptions on which the method is founded is included as well as guidelines as to when the technique is likely to be successful.
The technique used is perhaps best used as an aid to training staff in marker placement.
OLGA - Vicon
- Sensitivity of the OLGA and VCM models to erroneous marker placement: Effects on 3D-gait kinematics Gait data need to be reliable to be valuable for clinical decision-making. To reduce the impact of marker placement errors, the Optimized Lower Limb Gait Analysis (OLGA) model was developed. The purpose of this study was to assess the sensitivity of the kinematic gait data to a standard marker displacement of the OLGA model compared with the standard Vicon Clinical Manager (VCM) model and to determine whether OLGA reduces the errors due to the most critical marker displacements.
- Repeatability of an optimised lower body model - Vicon/OLGA The optimisation technique, optimised lower-limb gait analysis (OLGA), is described together with a preliminary study of repeatability compared to an implementation of the Newington–Helen Hayes gait model.
- A method to calculate the centre of the ankle joint A method to calculate the centre of the ankle joint: A comparison with the Vicon Plug-in-Gait model.
- Alternative modelling procedures for pelvic marker occlusion during motion analysis Motion analysis of participants with different body shapes under diverse conditions can be problematic when vitalmarkers are occluded. The markers located over the anterior superior iliac spines are commonly occluded in older patients and during analysis of activities with trunk and hip ﬂexion which can prevent accurate calculation of lower limb joint kinematics. Options to modify standard body models exist but have not been described in detail, and the effects on the lower limb kinematics are not known.
- Deﬁning the knee joint ﬂexion–extension axis Deﬁning the knee joint ﬂexion–extension axis for purposes of quantitative gait analysis: An evaluation of methods
- Foot models for clinical gait analysis The last few years have seen the publication of a plethora of foot models. This edition of Gait and Posture contains two more. These represent models that have attracted considerable attention when presented at conferences over the last few years and are now available for us to peruseindetail
- Kalman smoothing Kalman smoothing improves the estimation of joint kinematics and kinetics in marker-based human gait analysis
- Measurement of the screw-home motion of the knee is sensitive to errors in axis alignment Measurements of joint angles during motion analysis are subject to error caused by kinematic crosstalk, that is, one joint rotation (e.g., flexion) being interpreted as another (e.g., abduction).Kinematic crosstalk results from the chosen joint coordinate system being misaligned with the axes about which rotations are assumed to occur.The aim of this paper is to demonstrate that measurement of the so-called "screw-home" a motion of the human knee, in which axial rotation and extension are coupled, is especially prone to errors due to crosstalk.
- Repeatability of gait data using a functional hip joint centre and a mean helical knee axis The purpose of this paper was to compare the repeatability of gait data obtained from two models, one based on ALs (AL model), and the other incorporating a functional method to deﬁne hip joint centres and a mean helical axis to deﬁne knee joint ﬂexion/extension axes (FUN model).
In gait analysis, calculation of the ankle joint centre is a difﬁcult task. The conventional way to calculate the ankle joint centre is using the Vicon Plug-in-Gait model. The present study proposes a new model, which calculates the joint centre from two markers positioned over the medial and lateral malleoli (i.e. Two-marker-model).
Minimising measurement variability associated with hip axial rotation and avoiding knee joint angle cross-talk are two fundamental objectives of any method used to deﬁne the knee joint ﬂexion–extension axis for purposes of quantitative gait analysis. The aim of this experiment was to compare three different methods of deﬁning this axis: the knee alignment device (KAD) method, a method based on the transepicondylar axis (TEA) and an alternative numerical method (Dynamic).
We developed a Kalman smoothing algorithm to improve estimates of joint kinematics from measured marker trajectories during motion analysis. Kalman smoothing estimates are based on complete marker trajectories. This is an improvement over other techniques, such as the global optimisation method (GOM), Kalman ﬁltering, and local marker estimation (LME), where the estimate at each time instant is only based on part of the marker trajectories.
Standardization and Terminology Committee (STC)
International Society of Biomechanics (ISB):
- ISB recommendation on deﬁnitions of joint coordinate system ISB recommendation on deﬁnitions of joint coordinate system of various joints for the reporting of human joint motion—part I:
- ISB recommendation on deﬁnitions of joint coordinate system ISB recommendation on deﬁnitions of joint coordinate systems of various joints for the reporting of human joint motion—Part II:
ankle, hip, and spine
shoulder, elbow, wrist and hand